Wednesday, April 3, 2013

DNA testing to determine Native Ancestry mtDNA A2, B2, C1, D1, and X2a


Mitochondrial Eve is defined as the woman who was the matrilineal most recent common ancestor for all living humans. Mitochondrial Eve is generally estimated to have lived around 400,000 years ago. Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor, not the most recent common ancestor.

Schematic illustration of maternal (mtDNA) gene-flow in and out of Beringia, from 25,000 years ago to present.
When studying human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, the results indicate that Indigenous Amerindian haplogroups, including haplogroup X, are part of a single founding east Asian population. It also indicates that the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups and the levels of sequence divergence among linguistically similar groups were the result of multiple preceding migrations from Bering Straits populations.All Indigenous Amerindian mtDNA can be traced back to five haplogroups, ABCD and X.  

More specifically, Indigenous Amerindian mtDNA belongs to sub-haplogroups that are unique to the Americas and not found in Asia or Europe: A2, B2, C1, D1, and X2a (with minor groups C4c, D2, D3, and D4h3). 
This suggests that 95% of Indigenous Amerindian mtDNA is descended from a minimal genetic founding female population, comprising sub-haplogroups A2, B2, C1b, C1c, C1d, and D1. The remaining 5% is composed of the X2a, D2, D3, C4, and D4h3 sub-haplogroups.

X is one of the five mtDNA haplogroups found in Indigenous Amerindian peoples. Unlike the four main American mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C and D), X is not at all strongly associated with east Asia.
Haplogroup X genetic sequences diverged about 20,000 to 30,000 years ago to give two sub-groups, X1 and X2. X2's subclade X2a occurs only at a frequency of about 3% for the total current indigenous population of the Americas. 
However, X2a is a major mtDNA subclade in North America, where among the Algonquian peoples (Ojibwe and Chipewa)  it comprises up to 25% of mtDNA types. It is also present in lower percentages to the west and south of this area — among theSioux (15%), the Nuu-chah-nulth (11%–13%), the Navajo (7%), and the Yakama(5%). 
Haplogroup X is more strongly present in the Near East, the Caucasus, and Mediterranean Europe. The predominant theory for sub-haplogroup X2a's appearance in North America is migration along with A, B, C, and D mtDNA groups, from a source in the Altai Mountains of central Asia.
Sequencing of the mitochondrial genome from Paleo-Eskimo remains (3,500 years old) are distinct from modern Amerindians, falling within sub-haplogroup D2a1, a group observed among today's Aleutian Islanders, the Aleuts and Siberian Yupik populations.  This suggests that the colonizers of the far north and subsequently Greenland originated from later coastal populations. Then a genetic exchange in the northern extremes introduced by the Thule people (proto-Inuit) approximately 800–1,000 years ago began. These final Pre-Columbian migrants introduced haplogroups A2a and A2b to the existing Paleo-Eskimo populations of Canada and Greenland, culminating in the modern Inuit.

You can obtain your Y-DNA (male) and mtDNA (female) DNA from FamilyTreeDNA by ordering their Y-DNA12 Kit for $49 then adding the mtDNA for a reduced price......  

Sunday, January 13, 2013

X2a mtDNA in Galilee Northern Israel and the 12 Tribes

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. The genetic sequences of haplogroup X diverged originally from haplogroup N, and subsequently further diverged about 30,000 years ago to give two sub-groups, X1 and X2.

Sub-group X2 appears to have undergone extensive population expansion and dispersal around the last glacial maximum, about 22,000 years ago. It is more strongly present in the Near East, the Caucasus, and Mediterranean Europe; and somewhat less strongly present in the rest of Europe. Particular concentrations appear amongst the Israeli Druze community (27%). Subclades X2a and X2g are found in North American Ojibwe.

Druze: The greatest frequency of haplogroup X is observed in the Druze, a minority population in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, as much in X1 (16%) as in X2 (11%). The Druze also have much diversity of X lineages. This pattern of heterogeneous parental origins is consistent with Druze oral tradition. The Galilee Druze represent a population isolate, so their combination of a high frequency and diversity of X signifies a phylogenetic refugium, providing a sample snapshot of the genetic landscape of the Near East prior to the modern age.

Located in Northern Israel are the following 3 Tribes (Current and Ancient areas of X2a MtDNA)

1. Tribe Naphtali
2. Tribe of Zebulun
3. Tribe of Issachar

1. The Tribe of Naphtali: (Hebrew: נַפְתָּלִי, Modern Naftali Tiberian Nap̄tālî ; "My struggle") was one of the Tribes of Israel. Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE, Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. The Tribe of Naphtali was allocated the eastern side of the Galilee (on the immediate west of the Sea of Galilee), in the areas now known as the Lower Galilee, and Upper Galilee, and was bordered on the west by Asher, in the north by Dan, in the south by Zebulun, and by the Jordan River on the east. (Joshua 19:32-39) The most significant city was Hazor. In this region, bordering the Sea of Galilee, was the highly fertile plain of Gennesaret, characterised by Josephus as the ambition of nature, an earthly paradise,and with the southern portion of the region acting as a natural pass between the highlands of Canaan, several major roads (such as those from Damascus to Tyre and Acre) ran through it. The prosperity this situation brought is seemingly prophesied in the Blessing of Moses, though textual scholars view this as a postdiction, dating the poem to well after the tribe had been established in the land.

2. Tribe of Zebulun: According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Zebulun (alternatively rendered as Zabulon, Zabulin, Zabulun, Zebulon; Hebrew: זְבוּלֻן, Modern Zvulun Tiberian Zəḇûlūn ; "Dwelling; habitation") was one of the Tribes of Israel. Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE, Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. The territory it was allocated was at the southern end of the Galilee, with its eastern border being the Sea of Galilee, the western border being the Mediterranean Sea, the south being bordered by the Tribe of Issachar, and the north by Asher on the western side and Naphtali on the eastern. (Joshua 19:10-16)

3. Tribe of Issachar: According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Issachar (Hebrew: יִשָּׂשׁכָר, Modern Yissakhar Tiberian Yiśśâḵār) was one of the Tribes of Israel. Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE, Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. The territory which it was allocated was immediately north of (the western half of) Manasseh, and south of Zebulun and Naphtali, stretching from the Jordan River in the east, to the coast in the west; this region included the fertile Esdraelon plain. (Joshua 19:17-23)

Saturday, January 12, 2013

X2a mtDNA Distribution : Canada and the Galilee

Click image to enlarge.

Maps showing the Distribution and concentrated areas of X2a mtDNA (Maternal DNA Haplogroup) in the Ojibwe of North American and the Galilean Druze in present day Israel : Centred in and around Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario in Canada, and the area between Mt Carmel and the Sea of Galilee in Israel.

Ojibwe (X2a mtDNA) : are among the largest groups of Native Americans–First Nations north of Mexico. They are divided between Canada and the United States. In Canada, they are the second-largest population among First Nations, surpassed only by Cree. In the United States, they had the fourth-largest population among Native American tribes, surpassed only by Navajo, Cherokee and the Lakota. Because many Ojibwe were historically formerly located mainly around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie, they referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux. Ojibwe who were originally located about the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas.

The Ojibwe peoples are a major component group of the Anishinaabe-speaking peoples, a branch of the Algonquian language family which includes the Algonquin, Nipissing, Oji-Cree, Odawa and the Potawatomi. The Ojibwe peoples number over 56,440 in the U.S., living in an area stretching across the northern tier from Michigan west to Montana. Another 77,940 of main-line Ojibwe; 76,760 Saulteaux and 8,770 Mississaugas, in 125 bands, live in Canada, stretching from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia.[citation needed] They are historically known for their crafting of birch bark canoes, sacred birch bark scrolls, use of cowrie shells for trading, cultivation of wild rice, and use of copper arrow points. In 1745 they adopted guns from the British to use to defeat and push the Dakota nation of the Sioux to the south.

Galilean Druze (X2a mtDNA): are centered in the following areas of Northern Israel.
(Population figures and percentage of overall population):

The Galilee
Daliyat al-Karmel (15,000 – 96.9%)
Yirka (14,750 – 98.9%)
Maghar (11,600 – 57.8%)
Beit Jann (10,600 – 99.8%)
Isfiya (8,500 – 80%)
Kisra-Sumei (7,000 – 94.5%)
Julis (5,700 – 100%)
Yanuh-Jat (5,300 – 100%)
Hurfeish (5,250 – 95.8%)
Shefa-'Amr (5,150 – 14.1%)
Peki'in (4,150 – 76.5%)
Sajur (3,700 – 100%)
Abu Sinan (3,450 – 27.6%)
Rameh (2,200 – 30.4%)

In the Golan Heights:
Majdal Shams (9,700 – 99.9%)
Buq'ata (5,900 – 99.8%)
Mas'ade (3,100 – 99.9%)
Ein Qiniyye (1,735 – 98.9%)

The Druze revere the father-in-law of Moses, Jethro. According to the biblical narrative, Jethro joined and assisted the Israelites in the desert during the Exodus, accepted monotheism, but ultimately rejoined his own people. The tomb of Jethro near Tiberias is the most important religious site for the Druze community. The Druze conception of the deity is declared by them to be one of strict and uncompromising Unity. The main Druze doctrine states that God is both transcendent and immanent, in which he is above all attributes but at the same time he is present in all things. In God, there are no attributes distinct from his essence. He is wise, mighty, and just, not by wisdom, might and justice, but by his own essence. God is "the whole of existence", rather than "above existence" or on his throne, which would make him "limited." There is neither "how", "when", nor "where" about him; he is incomprehensible.

Druze citizens are prominent in the Israel Defense Forces and in politics. The bond between Jewish and Druze soldiers is commonly known by the term "a covenant of blood" (Hebrew: ברית דמים, brit damim)

Ojibwe Spiritual beliefs

Image : The Pictorial notation of an Ojibwe music board.

The Ojibwe have a number of spiritual beliefs passed down by oral tradition under the Midewiwin teachings. These include a creation story and a recounting of the origins of ceremonies and rituals. Spiritual beliefs and rituals were very important to the Ojibwe because spirits guided them through life. Birch bark scrolls and petroforms were used to pass along knowledge and information, as well as for ceremonies. Pictographs were also used for ceremonies.

The sweatlodge is still used during important ceremonies about the four directions, when oral history is recounted. Teaching lodges are common today to teach the next generations about the language and ancient ways of the past. The traditional ways, ideas, and teachings are preserved and practiced in such living ceremonies. The Ojbwe crafted the dreamcatcher. They believe that if one is hung above the head of a sleeper, it will catch and trap bad dreams, preventing them from reaching the dreamer. Traditional Ojibwe use dreamcatchers only for children, as they believe that adults should be able to interpret their dreams, good or bad and use them in their lives.

The Origin of the name "Ojibwe" : those who keep records

Name: The autonym for this group of Anishinaabeg is Ojibwe (plural: Ojibweg). This name is commonly anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway." The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States and "Ojibwa" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U.S., more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; the most common explanations for the name derivations are:

1. from ozhibii'iwe (/o/ + /zhibii'/ + /iwe/), meaning "those who keep records [of a Vision]", referring to their form of pictorial writing, and pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites; or

2. from ojibway (/o/ + /ji/ + /bway/), meaning "the spiritual ones", coinciding with the three fires confederacy member nations- the Potawatomi (meaning the fire keepers), the Odawa (meaning the ones who trade). Each of these member nations are named to each have a role in protecting a specific, important part of Anishinaabe language and coinciding culture.

According to the oral history, seven great miigis (radiant/iridescent) beings appeared to the peoples in the Waabanakiing (Land of the Dawn, i.e., Eastern Land) to teach them the mide way of life. One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the peoples in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach, while the one returned into the ocean. The six great miigis beings established doodem (clans) for the peoples in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii (Bullhead), Baswenaazhi (Echo-maker, i.e., Crane), Aan'aawenh (Pintail Duck), Nooke (Tender, i.e., Bear) and Moozoonsii (Little Moose), then these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being stayed, it would have established the Thunderbird doodem.

Friday, January 11, 2013

Galilean Druze X2a mtDNA

Lineage analysis within the mtDNA X-haplogroup of the Galilee Region is particularly enlightening. It should be noted that the estimated coalescence times for the major mtDNA X subhaplogroups X1 and X2 are 42,900±18,100 and 17,900±2,900 respectively. It is striking that those different lineages (from the same parental haplogroup) whose genetic divergence date back more than ten thousand years would remain so concentrated within such a small geographic region. Mutation rates for the mtDNA coding region, are not consistent with the possibility that this number of different coding region defined lineages within haplogroup X could have resulted from the recent expansion of a monophyletic clade within the past 1000 years. Rather this combination among the Druze, of a large number of lineages, together with a high frequency of the haplogroup in which these lineages are found, suggests descent from an ancestral population, in which the X haplogroup was more abundant than it is in the contemporary Near East, and which reflects the prevailing Near East genetic landscape at that time, antedating the establishment of the Druze religion in 1017 A.C.E. This supports the notion that the Druze represent a refugium of the population genetic structure from the time period prior to the “Dawa”, and also confirms the hypothesis of high endogamy among the Druze. The refugium hypothesis based on mtDNA haplogroup X analysis was corroborated by the finding of high diversity for the Druze mtDNA haplogroups H and K, with the added finding of novel lineages not shared with nearby populations.

Furthermore, the formal rejection of the alternate hypothesis relating to immigration to the region of individuals sharing the same mtDNA haplogroup but with lineages that diverged in antiquity, further strengthens the Druze refugium model. Although, we cannot exclude the possibility that some ratio between non-random migration and colonization did occur during and following the “Dawa” period and generated the differences in haplogroup frequencies among the current Druze subregions, and between the Druze and other populations, this explanation is highly unlikely in face of the demographic modeling results. The overall low migration rate between the Druze and all other nearby populations cannot explain the high diversity and high frequency of X haplogroup lineages in the Galilee region. Low migration rates were also evident between the Galilee Druze and Druze from other subregions. The finding of the enrichment of the NRY haplogroup K among the Galilee Druze with no detection in samples from other subregions, further supports the relative isolation of this region, even among the Druze. Taken together these findings support the hypothesis that the Galilee Druze are a further more isolated subpopulation of the Druze, who in turn represents a refugium of the population genetic architecture of the Near East in antiquity.

Demographic modeling can also provide estimates of divergence times for populations with shared ancestries. The demographic modeling in the current study indicates most recent divergence of the Druze from an ancestral population shared with Egyptians, Ashkenazi Jews, Adygeis and Greeks. The Egyptian shared ancestry is also consistent with Druze oral tradition. The migration rates of the Druze with these populations are exceedingly low, and this can be attributed to endogamy and geographic isolation following divergence. It should be kept in mind however, that the computational algorithms used for the demographic modeling are designed for models involving an ancestral population which split and maintained constant migration rate among the two daughter populations. Such a simplified model does not take into account the effect of shared party migration, and therefore would tend to overestimate the migration rate, and underestimate the divergence time. Therefore the Druze would seem to have an even greater degree of genetic isolation, than indicated by these results of the demographic modeling.

The historical events and time frame for the loss or dilution of haplogroup X individuals is consistent with the population upheavals and patterns of migration that have characterized the Near East during the past two millennia at least. The preservation of this refugium of mtDNA lineage diversity among the Druze, mainly due to genetic isolation may be the result of their location in relatively more defensible mountainous regions, and the practice of conciliation with governing authorities and dissimulation called the “Taqiyya”, or due to other factors which facilitated preservation of societal integrity during periods of demographic and political change in the region.

Conclusions : The findings suggest that the Near East maternal genetic landscape differed substantially in the past from its current structure, and was enriched in diverse lineages of the mtDNA X haplogroup. These findings have been uncovered due to the unique demographic features of the Druze population, and the adjusted sampling method employed in the current study. The combination of a high frequency and diversity of the Druze mtDNA haplogroup X lineages, in a confined geographic region, and the low migration rate with nearby populations make it unlikely that this diversity was imported. It is thus likely that the global diversity of this haplogroup evolved in the Near East and adjacent regions of western Eurasia, during a long incubation period coinciding with and following the most recent out of Africa expansion as dated by mtDNA coalescence simulations[44]. The Druze population of the Galilee represents a contemporary refugium of this past genetic landscape. More ...